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The Los Osuna Process
For the purposes of this section; we'll avoid all of the scientific stuff and keep it simple yet informative.
A field of young Agave plants
A Coa is used to chop the leaves off of an Agave plant - yielding a piña.
THE AGAVE PLANT: is a class of drought-resistant, heat-tolerant, succulent perennial plants - the name "Agave" is used to cover a wide variety of similar plants. Almost all agave plants produces a central stalk that flowers - most agave plants that produce the flowering stalk die after the flowers dry. Some agave plans are known by the name Century Plant. The Blue Agave is the only agave plant that is used to make the best-tasting (not to be confused with "most popular") tequilas and mescals. As a recognized Award-winning, top-quality Blue Agave Spirit; Los Osuna is distilled only from the best Blue Agave plants.

GROWING AND HARVESTING: The Agave grows for a minimum of 7 to 8 years to reach maturity. The Osuna family gives careful attention to the soil and drainage conditions to decided where the Blue Agaves are planted in order to obtain the best sugar levels in the plants and will frequently leave areas unplanted when soil conditions change.

Towards the end of the growing period, the plants are monitored for sugar-content (the desired level is at least 28%). Once it's determined that it's time to harvest; based on each plant's conditions, plants may be harvested individually or entire fields may be harvested at one time. Blue Agaves are normally harvested during the dry-weather season because excessive moisture in the plants dilutes the sugar-to-moisture ratio in the plants, which increases production costs.
The harvesting is done by removing the plant from the ground and then the leaves (yes, those long spine-covered things are called leaves), are chopped off the plant using a sharp, long-handled tool called a Coa. The remaining 'pineapple-shaped' center is called a piña.
THE ROASTING: The piñas are placed in traditional underground ovens (pits) to be roasted. The purpose of the roasting is to transform the starch into fermentable sugars and to soften the structure of the piñas to facilitate the extraction of the juice.  
SUGAR EXTRACTION: After the roasting, the piñas are chopped into large pieces and then put into traditional crushing equipment to obtain the optimal quantity and quality of liquid from the pieces of piñas because WHAT is extracted from the crushed piñas will dramatically affect the taste of the final product.
FERMENTING: Fermentation is one of the most important stages to obtain the desired characteristics in the product. Yeast is the key part of fermenting. Yeast is a micro-organism that devours sugar, and in doing that, it converts the sugar to alcohol and produces carbon dioxide as a by-product. Los Osuna uses a very special culture of yeast that's been reproduced, improved, and is highly guarded because of its superior ability to help attain the eventual unique qualities of Los Osuna Blue Agave Azul.
DISTILLATION: When the fermentation is complete, the liquid, (called mosto), is transferred to the still where heat causes the alcohol to rise as vapors. The vapors travel through a pipe, which causes them to cool and condense back to a liquid. Like tequila, it's then distilled a second time to remove impurities.  
Directly after distillation, large tanks hold the product temporarily - until it's bottled as Blanco (Silver) or put into barrels for aging - which will become Reposado or Añejo.
AGING: Aging in charred oak barrels is the final stage before bottling. By carefully monitoring the temperature and the time that the product stays in the barrels, the perfect balance of the flavor, color, aroma, body, and other characteristics of Reposado and Añejo is achieved. (see Footnote)  
Blanco (also referred to as "silver") is not aged - it's always bottled within days of final distillation and remains clear / colorless because it isn't exposed to the oak barrels that give aged products their color and flavors.  
Footnote: There are 5 generally recognized types of Tequilas / Mescals. They are:
1) Blanco; not aged 2) Joven (Pronounced; O'-von,.also called "Gold"); made with Blanco - color is added so it appears aged
3) Reposado; ( Maduro) aged at less than 12 months 4) Añejo; aged at least 12 months to achieve desired color, flavor, etc.
5) Extra Añejo is aged for different lengths of time but most producers age it for at least 2 years
Some Tequila / Mescal producers also offer an "Extra-extra Añejo", but most only bottle Blanco/Silver, Reposado and Añejo because the demand for the other types is very limited.  
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